Countries such as Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Iraq or even Afghanistan are known for their former Jewish communities. This, however, was a long time ago. As soon as the State of Israel came into existing in 1948, most Arab countries kicked their Jewish population out.
Jews had been living in Arab countries for centuries. In Iraq and Iran for more than a 1000 years. Since the Babylonian Exile after the destruction of the First Temple (Bayit Rishon).
The National Hebrew Library has acquired rare documents of the Jewish community in Afghanistan
More details about the former Jewish communities in Afghanistan: